Intensifying affronts in Syria's Afrin, Ghouta and Idlib regions have made room for Turkish President Erdogan's Operation Olive Branch to take effect and target militant Kurds (YPP), much to the dismay of the YPP-dependent U.S., which is also ready to sanction Turkey if it accepts a delivery of Russian S-400 missiles.
Turkey is also set to purchase Russia's long-range S-400 missile defense system - a deal that is raising eyebrows among some of Turkey's North Atlantic Treaty Organisation allies.
Turkey insists the Russian plane - deployed as part of Moscow's military campaign in support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's fight against rebels - strayed into Turkish airspace.
In a sign that ties are warming, Putin is one of the first worldwide leaders to call Erdogan and offer support after a failed coup against the Turkish president in July 2016.
The three leaders will discuss regional events, the ongoing war in Syria, and the relations between their countries.
"This is completely a new step, a new step towards the development of Turkey's economy", the Russian president said.
Russian Federation and Turkey have also over the past months reinforced cooperation on the question of the dragging Syrian war.
Moscow vows to answer USA 'blackmail'; North Atlantic Treaty Organisation expels Russian staff
Skripal was granted refuge in the United Kingdom following a 2010 spy exchange between the US and Russian Federation . Stoltenberg's statement followed the earlierdismissal of more than 140 Russian diplomats from 24 different countries.
"In the name of God!"
In late June 2016 the Kremlin says Erdogan has apologised for the jet downing in a message to Putin, in which he calls for a return to friendlier ties.
It will produce 35 billion kilowatts of electricity at full capacity, which will meet about 10 percent of Turkey's electricity needs. The first stage is due to come online in 2023, the 100th anniversary of modern Turkey's founding, and be completed entirely in 2026.
Russian Federation and Turkey are also building the TurkStream gas pipeline under the Black Sea that will allow Moscow to pump gas to Europe avoiding Ukraine and increase Turkey's importance as a transit hub.
Answering Western critics of the deal, Erdoğan indicated that Turkey was in no mood to listen to criticism from the West over the purchase of the S-400 systems, saying "this issue is now closed".
According to Russian press reports, Turkey has also been hugely interested in a technology transfer and even joint production of the S-400s with Russia, a prospect that has been resisted by some in the Moscow security services.